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In-Text Citations

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Citing the Declaration of Independence & Constitution

According to the Georgetown University Library, it is not necessary to cite the Declaration of Independence of the Constitution in your Works Cited/Annotated Bibliography because they are such well known works. However, you must cite them in your text. 

Here's how the Georgetown University Library recommends citing these documents in-text:

Declaration of Independence

The first time you mention the Declaration of Independence in your text, add the institution author (U.S.) and date (1776) in parentheses.

Example: The Declaration of Independence states that the government's "just power" is derived "from the consent of the governed." (U.S. 1776)

After you have done that once in your text, you don't need to include (U.S. 1776) again. 

U.S. Constitution

When you are citing the U.S. Constitution, if you are referring to a particular section of the document you should mention the specific article, section, and clause in your text. Georgetown University Library recommends choosing one of two ways to do this.

Example 1: The Constitution of the United States, Article 1 (sec. 7, cl. 1) dictates that all revenue bills must originate in the House of Representatives.

Example 2: The U.S. Constitution (art. 1, sec. 7, cl. 1) dictates that all revenue bills must originate in the House of Representatives.

Citing (Internet Archive Wayback Machine)

If you are using to access an older version of a website, you need to cite both the original website and (two containers). In this example, you can see that I cited the title of the website in italics (Square Enix) and

"Businesses." Square Enix, 29 Mar. 2019., Accessed 18 Dec. 2019.

Creating a Project & Citing Databases

Citing Books

Citing a Database

Citing a book

How do I cite a book?

Use the title page first, and then the copyright page (not the cover or jacket), to find:

  • Author
  • Title and subtitle
  • Illustrator, translator or other contributor
  • Publisher’s name and imprint
  • Place of publication - only if this is an unknown city
  • Latest copyright date
  • Series name (if applicable)
  • Edition (if applicable)

Citing a Website

How do I cite a Website or a webpage?

Common elements needed:

  • Author
  • Title
  • Name of the Web site or Project
  • Editor of the page or site
  • Publisher or sponsor
  • Date of the publication
  • URL
  • Accessed on date

Books That Can Help